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Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology  2020, Vol. 47 Issue (4): 556-559    DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog.2020.04.5166
Original Research Previous articles | Next articles
Effects of the colour and design of a new pelvic examination chair on comfort during gynaecological examination
C. Stenfelt1, *(), L. Ydenius1, S. Lindberg2, J. Spira3, G. Edelstam4, 5
1Livio Gärdet, Storängsvägen 10, SE 115 42 Stockholm(Sweden)
2RISE Bioeconomy, Box 5604, SE 114 86 Stockholm(Sweden)
3InSpira Medical AB, Tyresö(Sweden)
4Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE 182 88, Stockholm, Sweden
5Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
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Objectives: The main question was whether the colour of a new design of pelvic examination chair could affect how the examination procedure was perceived. A prototype was constructed without vertical leg support and with built-in heating in the upholstery. To improve integrity, the perineum was exposed only during the examination. Main Outcome Measures: The patients were invited to evaluate the two different chair colours used, light blue and off-white, respectively. After vaginal ultrasound, the patients answered an anonymous questionnaire about their experience of the examination and how they perceived the comfort, warmth, integrity and colour of the chair. There were also questions regarding the absence of vertical leg support. Results: The questionnaire evaluation demonstrated the importance of colour since integrity was rated significantly higher in the light-blue chair than in the off-white. Similarly, the blue chair was experienced as significantly more comfortable than the white. Conclusions: The effect of colour was investigated in a new pelvic examination chair without vertical leg support, developed to suit men, women and also non-binary and transgender persons. It was also designed for increased comfort and integrity. The experience of colour had a significant positive (p < 0.001) effect on how the comfort, integrity and the absence of vertical leg support were perceived.

Key words:  Ultrasound examination chair      Gynaecological examination      Comfort      Questionnaire      Colour     
Submitted:  28 February 2019      Accepted:  29 April 2019      Published:  15 August 2020     
Fund: Vinnova and the Stockholm County Council
*Corresponding Author(s):  C. Stenfelt     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

C. Stenfelt, L. Ydenius, S. Lindberg, J. Spira, G. Edelstam. Effects of the colour and design of a new pelvic examination chair on comfort during gynaecological examination. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2020, 47(4): 556-559.

URL:     OR

Figure 1.  — Differences between off-white (W) and light-blue (B) gynaecology chairs. Figures on x-axis indicate numbers of answers with significant differences.

Figure 2.  — The off-white (W) and light-blue (B) pelvic examination chairs.

Table 1  — The patients’ rating comparing the colour of the gender-neutral pelvic examination chair (off-white group n = 23) and (light-blue group n = 25).
Rating 1-5 from negative to positive (mean ± SEM) Off-white Light-blue p-value
1.Expectation of a gynaecological examination? 4.4 ± 0.20 4.5 ± 0.16 NS
2.Comfort in the pelvic examination chair? 4.2 ± 0.18 4.9 ± 0.06 p < 0.001*
3.Warmth of surface layer? 4.5 ± 0.17 4.7 ± 0.12 NS
4.Feeling of integrity during pelvic examination? 4.2 ± 0.15 4.7 ± 0.11 p < 0.0102*
5.Feeling of control during examination? 4.4 ± 0,14 4.7 ± 0,12 p < 0.09
6.Experience of colour of pelvic examination chair?
a) negative - positive
b) worrying - calming

4.1 ± 0.28
3.6 ± 0.35

4.1 ± 0.23
3.8 ± 0.22

7.Attitude towards future examination in the same pelvic examination chair? 4.9 ± 0.07 4.9 ± 0.08 NS
8.Experience of resting legs without vertical leg support? 4.3 ± 0.25 4.9 ± 0.09 p < 0.0115*
9.Experience of resting feet on foot plate? 4.7 ± 0.09 4.8 ± 0.11 NS
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