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Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology  2020, Vol. 47 Issue (3): 391-395    DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog.2020.03.5334
Original Research Previous articles | Next articles
Factors associated with hyperemesis gravidarum
G. Keren1, *(), G. Ayala1
1Nursing Department, Faculty of Social and Community Sciences, Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq-Hefer, 4025000, Israel
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Introduction: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy (NVP) is a common health condition during pregnancy, often referred to as ‘morning sickness’. The most severe degree is Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG). The reasons for this phenomenon are still somewhat unclear. Methods: The sample included 201 fertility-age women, who had experienced at least one pregnancy. Data were gathered by a questionnaire that included sociodemographic questions and validated questionnaires: BSI, anxiety state and anxiety trait. Results: A relationship was found between existing gastrointestinal disorders and HG, and anxiety state and HG. Logistic regression significantly showed that previous gastrointestinal disorders predicted HG. Discussion: It seems that the emotional state and physical condition are related to HG, and that women with gastrointestinal diseases are more likely to suffer from HG.

Key words:  Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG)      Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy (NVP)      Somatization      Anxiety     
Submitted:  11 August 2019      Accepted:  11 November 2019      Published:  15 June 2020     
*Corresponding Author(s):  GRINBERG KEREN     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

G. Keren, G. Ayala. Factors associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2020, 47(3): 391-395.

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Table 1  — Research population distribution by background and personality traits
Variable Mean SD SD error
Anxiety state 2.6208 0.35113 0.04424
Anxiety trait 2.4320 0.36493 0.03107
BSI 0.8290 0.63625 0.05416
BMI 27.0669 12.18856 1.03756
Age 32.75 0.936 0.080
Number of previous pregnancies 2.937 0.9482 0.1195
Number of previous births 1.88 1.070 0.091
Table 2  — Distribution of nausea and vomiting reports by weeks of pregnancy
Pregnancy timeline Frequency % Valid %
Up to 20 weeks 80 39.8 61.5
Beyond 20 weeks 50 24.9 38.5
Total responses 130 64.7 100
No response 71 35.3
Total responses + non-responses 201 100
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