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Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology  2020, Vol. 47 Issue (2): 179-182    DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog.2020.02.5037
Original Research Previous articles | Next articles
The impact of surgical menopause on metabolic syndrome, bone mineral density, and vasomotor symptoms
F. N. Tuysuzoglu1, *(), G. A. Ilhan1, B. Yildizhan1
1Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul, Turkey
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Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of surgical and natural menopause on vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis, and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Seventy menopausal women fulfilling the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups according to surgical and natural menopause. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Vasomotor symptoms were scored according to the presence of hot flashes and night sweats. The participants had a bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation of the total lumbar spine and total hip bone. Results: The rates of vasomotor symptoms were similar among groups (p > 0.05). MS was significantly higher in surgical menopause group than in natural menopause group (p < 0.05). Women with surgical menopause were found to be more osteopenic at level L1-L4 (p < 0.05). Furthermore there were no differences between the femoral neck, femora total T scores, and BMDs of two groups. Conclusion: Compared with natural menopause, surgical menopause was found to be associated with higher rates of MS and osteoporosis but not with vasomotor symptoms.

Key words:  Surgical and natural menopause      Vasomotor symptoms      Bone mineral density      Metabolic syndrome     
Published:  15 April 2020     
*Corresponding Author(s):  F. N. Tuysuzoglu     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

F. N. Tuysuzoglu, G. A. Ilhan, B. Yildizhan. The impact of surgical menopause on metabolic syndrome, bone mineral density, and vasomotor symptoms. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2020, 47(2): 179-182.

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Table 1  — Clinical, hormonal, metabolic characteristics, and bone mineral density of groups.
Variable Surgical menopause (n=35) Natural menopause (n=35) p
Age (years) 50.05±2.74 50.62±3.78 0.472
Gravidity 2.9±2.06 3.11±2.09 0.689
Parity 2.57±1.44 2.57±1.61 1.00
Abortions 0.34±1.16 0.54±1.01 0.445
BMI (kg/m2) 31.24±4.87 30.00±5.2 0.309
BUN (mg/dl) 14.05±3.09 12.79±2.91 0.083
Cr (mg/dl) 0.68±0.11 0.67±0.09 0.741
AST(U/L) 23.91±10.24 21.54±4.56 0.215
ALT(U/L) 23.28±6.86 20.82±6.97 0.142
Menopause duration (months) 30.28±12.53 34.14±15.25 0.252
Vasomotor symptom 22(%62, 85) 20(%57, 14) 0.626
Metabolic syndrome 14(%40) 6(%17, 14) 0.034*
HOMA-IR 3.19±2.73 2.64±0.18 0.359
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.28±15.00 121.14±13.57 0.001**
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80.62±9.80 70.08±10.26 <0.001**
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 54.00±10.04 61.54±13.79 0.011*
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 134.86±31.72 143.28±28.95 0.251
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 213.85±37.28 229.77±38.33 0.083
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 125.57±2.19 124.14±58.25 0.914
L1-L4 T score -1.01±1.35 -0.43±1.04 0.048*
L1-L4 BMD (gr/cm2) 1.025±0.16 1.09±0.12 0.045*
Femoral neck T score -0.40±1.02 -0.11±0.80 0.185
Femoral neck BMD (gr/cm2) 0.90±0.11 0.93±0.09 0.186
Femora total T score 0.17±1.04 0.17±0.93 0.510
Femoral total BMD (gr/cm2) 0.97±0.12 0.99±0.11 0.451
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