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Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology  2019, Vol. 46 Issue (4): 511-515    DOI: 10.12891/ceog4814.2019
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Differential diagnosis of adenomyosis: the role of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy
A. Pontis1, *(), L. Nappi2, F. Sorrentino2, S. Angioni3
1U.O.C. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ospedale San Francesco, Nuoro, Italy
2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
3Department of Surgical Sciences, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
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Abstract  

Adenomyosis is defined as the heterotopic presence of endometrial mucosa (glands and stroma) abnormally implanted within myometrium with a range of clinical presentations, the most common being heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhoea; nevertheless, patients can also be asymptomatic. This review describes the state of the art of role of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy in the diagnosis of adenomyosis according to recent literature findings. Hysteroscopy offers the advantage of direct visualization of the uterine cavity, and nowadays is performed in the office. It is immediately preceded by a physical exam and a transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) to evaluate uterine characteristics. It is offers the possibility of obtaining endometrial/myometrial biopsies under visual control. Laparoscopy is not traditionally considered a diagnostic tool for adenomyosis, but it can have a complementary role in the differential diagnosis of this insidious pathology.

Key words:  Adenomyosis      Laparoscopy      Hysteroscopy     
Published:  10 August 2019     
*Corresponding Author(s):  A. PONTIS     E-mail:  alesspontis@msn.com

Cite this article: 

A. Pontis, L. Nappi, F. Sorrentino, S. Angioni. Differential diagnosis of adenomyosis: the role of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2019, 46(4): 511-515.

URL: 

https://ceog.imrpress.com/EN/10.12891/ceog4814.2019     OR     https://ceog.imrpress.com/EN/Y2019/V46/I4/511

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