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Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology  2021, Vol. 48 Issue (3): 594-600    DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog.2021.03.2435
Original Research Previous articles | Next articles
Level of depression and hopelessness among women with infertility during the outbreak of COVID-19: a cross-sectional investigation
Banuhan Şahin1, Buğra Şahin2, Pervin Karlı1, Görker Sel3, Şafak Hatırnaz4, Osman Fadıl Kara1, Andrea Tinelli5, 6, *()
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Amasya University Sabuncuoglu Serefeddin Training and Research Hospital, 05100 Amasya, Turkey
2Clinics of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Turhal State Hospital, 60300 Tokat, Turkey
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, 67100 Zonguldak, Turkey
4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, IVF Unit, Medicana International Hospital, 06520 Samsun, Turkey
5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Verisdelli Ponti" Hospital, Scorrano, 73100 Lecce, Italy
6PhystechBioMed School, Faculty of Biological & Medical Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, 141701 Moscow Region, Russia
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Abstract  
Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak negatively impacted on the mental wellbeing of infertile couples, because of the World Health Organization's recommendation to stop all fertility treatments. This study aims to investigate the level of depression and hopelessness during the COVID-19 outbreak, in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods: A 16-item online questionnaire was applied to a total of 220 women with primary and secondary infertility in June 2020. Participants' knowledge and concerns about COVID-19 pandemic stop of treatments and follow-up preferences were evaluated. In addition, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) were adapted to Turkish and applied to each participant. Total scores of inventories between women were calculated. The correlation between depression and hopelessness levels of the groups was evaluated. Results: The BDI and BHS mean scores of 220 infertile women who completed our questionnaire were 14.63 ± 9.123 and 5.43 ± 5.026 and Cronbach's alpha-values were 0.853 and 0.904, respectively. It was found that 142 women with secondary infertility had higher mean depression and hopelessness scores (15.92 ± 9.758, 11.81 ± 6.501; P = 0.001) VS 78 women with primary infertility (6.51 ± 5.262, 3.78 ± 3.670; P = 0.000). A strong positive correlation was detected between depression and hopelessness levels for each group (r = 0.625, P = 0.000 and r = 0.740, P = 0.000). Conclusions: Total depression and hopelessness scores of both groups were in a strong positive correlation with primary and secondary infertility during the COVID-19 outbreak. Particularly, women with secondary infertility had mild depression and low levels of hopelessness.
Key words:  COVID-19 outbreak      Infertility      Assisted reproductive technology      Depression      Hopelessness     
Submitted:  25 December 2020      Revised:  28 January 2021      Accepted:  08 February 2021      Published:  15 June 2021     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Andrea Tinelli     E-mail:  andreatinelli@gmail.com

Cite this article: 

Banuhan Şahin, Buğra Şahin, Pervin Karlı, Görker Sel, Şafak Hatırnaz, Osman Fadıl Kara, Andrea Tinelli. Level of depression and hopelessness among women with infertility during the outbreak of COVID-19: a cross-sectional investigation. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2021, 48(3): 594-600.

URL: 

https://ceog.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.ceog.2021.03.2435     OR     https://ceog.imrpress.com/EN/Y2021/V48/I3/594

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