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Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology  2020, Vol. 47 Issue (4): 505-510    DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog.2020.04.5285
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What is the state of knowledge on preterm birth?
N. Dropińska1, K. Chmaj-Wierzchowska1, *(), M. Wojciechowska1, M. Wilczak1
1Department of Maternal and Child Health, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
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Abstract  

Objective: Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and the most common reason for antenatal hospitalization. This study aimed at the assessment of the state of knowledge of women of childbearing age regarding PTD, including its risk factors and symptoms, as well as the procedure performed, and the factors influencing the level of knowledge of women about PTD. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the period between July 5-15, 2017 and a group of 93 women of childbearing age residing within the Wielkopolska area, attending obstetric and gynecological clinics. The survey questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of the study and contained questions on the issues related to PTD, including the risk factors and symptoms of PTD, a procedure performed for PTD, and complications faced by the neonate. Results: The sources of knowledge most frequently indicated by the surveyed women were family/friends (26.9%), magazines (28%), and physician (22.5%), while midwives (14%) and birthing school (8.6%) were indicated least frequently. A higher level of knowledge was found among the women who obtained information on PTD from a midwife, physician, and family/friends (χ2 = 22.618; p = 0.004). Conclusions: A higher level of knowledge on PTD was exhibited by women who obtained information on this issue from a midwife, physician, or family/friends. Therefore, there is a need to educate pregnant woman regarding the risk factors of PTD.

Key words:  Preterm delivery (PTD)      Knowledge      Midwife      Physician     
Submitted:  09 June 2019      Accepted:  04 September 2019      Published:  15 August 2020     
*Corresponding Author(s):  K. Chmaj-Wierzchowska     E-mail:  karolina.chmaj-wierzchowska@ump.edu.pl

Cite this article: 

N. Dropińska, K. Chmaj-Wierzchowska, M. Wojciechowska, M. Wilczak. What is the state of knowledge on preterm birth?. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2020, 47(4): 505-510.

URL: 

https://ceog.imrpress.com/EN/10.31083/j.ceog.2020.04.5285     OR     https://ceog.imrpress.com/EN/Y2020/V47/I4/505

Table 1  — Characteristics of the study group.
N %
Age (years) Up to 25 65 69.9%
26 to 30 16 16.1%
Over 30 13 14.0%
Education Primary 7 7.5%
Professional 4 4.3%
Secondary 48 51.6%
Tertiary 34 36.6%
Place of residence Village 10 10.8%
City to 100 thousand 22 23.7%
City from 100 thousand to 500 thousand 33 35.5%
City over 500 thousand 28 30.1%
Employment situation Not employed - students 52 55.9%
Professionally active 41 44.1%
Source of knowledge Friends/family 25 26.9%
Magazines 26 28.0%
Physician 21 22.5%
Midwife 13 14.0%
Birthing school 8 8.6%
Table 2  — Knowledge of medical, social, environmental, and psychogenic risk factors of preterm delivery (PTD).
Knowledge of medical PTD risk factors N %
Pathologies associated with the placenta 70 75.3
Multiple pregnancy 69 74.2
Eventful perinatal history (PTD in the previous pregnancy) 60 64.5
Cervical incompetence 54 58.1
Preexisting abortions 54 58.1
Diabetes 41 44.1
Hypertension 34 36.6
High vitamin intake during pregnancy 16 17.2
Polyhydramnios 15 16.1
Event of a minor upper respiratory tract disease 1 1.1
Knowledge of social PTD risk factors N %
Low education level 58 62.4
Low social and economic status 46 49.5
Obesity 45 48.4
Malnutrition 43 46.2
Use of stimulants 30 32.3
Multiparity 20 21.5
Heavy manual labor 20 21.5
Mother age (< 18 or > 35 years) 4 4.3
Marital status single 4 4.3
Knowledge of environmental PTD risk factors N %
Ionizing radiation 50 62.4
Radioactive radiation 53 57.0
Thermal radiation 50 53.8
Long walks 41 44.1
Vibrations 39 41.9
Environmental pollution 24 25.8
Frequent computer use 18 19.4
Noise 18 19.4
Knowledge of psychogenic PTD risk factors N %
Death in family 64 68.8
Own or family diseases 54 58.1
Stress associated with insufficient care of the pregnant woman 52 55.9
Conflict situations 47 50.5
Obsessions (e.g. for clean hands) 28 30.1
Anxiety associated with potential fetal loss 28 30.1
Table 3  — Knowledge on the symptoms, procedure performed, and prophylactic activities against preterm deliv ery (PTD).
Knowledge on PTD symptoms N %
Contracting function 72 77.4
Premature amniotic sac rupture 62 66.7
Pressure in the abdomen 50 53.8
Sensation of pressure in the pelvis 49 52.7
Pain in the sacral area 32 34.4
Food cravings 30 32.3
Dreams of the upcoming birth 17 18.3
Diarrhea or frequent urination 6 6.5
Knowledge on procedure performed in the event of PTD risk N %
Performance of control Ultrasound and CTG 77 82.8
Tocolysis, administration of drugs inhibiting contracting function 64 68.8
Need for hospitalization 58 62.4
Acupuncture 24 47.3
Massage session for muscle relaxation 22 23.7
Listening to symphonic music 11 11.8
Knowledge on prophylactic activities against PTD N %
Elimination of stress situations 71 76.3
Regular visits for examinations 68 73.1
Smoking cessation 56 60.2
Care for personal hygiene 51 54.8
Abdomen massage 31 33.3
Restriction of physical effort 30 32.3
Observing the recommendations of the midwife and the nurse 28 30.1
Drinking raspberry infusion 10 10.8
Table 4  — Comparison of results of the knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and procedure performed in the event of preterm delivery (PTD).
Mean Standard deviation Median Minimum result Maximum result Level of knowledge
Medical risk factors 3.68 1.65 4.00 0 7 52.57
Social risk factors 2.60 1.82 3.00 0 6 43.33
Environmental risk factors 1.99 1.21 2.00 0 4 49.75
Psychogenic risk factors 2.35 1.18 2.00 0 4 58.75
PTD symptoms 2.85 1.19 2.00 0 5 57.00
Procedure performed in the event of PTD 2.14 0.83 2.00 0 3 71.33
Preventive actions against PTD 2.95 1.14 3.00 0 5 59.00
Table 5  — Knowledge of the definition of birth and the general knowledge level.
Knows the definition of PTD Does not know the definition of PTD
N % N %
Low knowledge level 6 12.5 19 42.2
Moderate knowledge level 40 83.3 25 55.6
High knowledge level 2 4.2 1 2.2
Total 48 100.0 45 100
Table 6  — Source of information vs. general knowledge level.
Physician Midwife Magazines Birthing school Family/friends
N % N % N % N % N %
Low knowledge level 4 19.0 3 23.1 10 38.5 3 37.5 5 20.0
Moderate knowledge level 17 81.0 7 53.8 16 61.5 5 62.5 20 80.0
High knowledge level 0 0 3 23.1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 21 100 13 100 26 100 8 100 25 100
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