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Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology  2020, Vol. 47 Issue (2): 234-237    DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog.2020.02.5103
Original Research Previous articles | Next articles
Effects of marginal umbilical cord insertion on the prognosis of fetus
Y. Tian1, H. Luo1, *(), M. He1
1Ultrasound Department, Sichuan University West China Second University Hospital/Key Laboratory of Obstetrics & Gynecologic and Pediatric Diseases and Birth Defects of Ministry of Education, Chengdu, Si Chuan Province, P.R. China
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Abstract  Objective: To investigate the effect of marginal placental insertion of the umbilical cord on the prognosis of a fetus. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed to compare the differences in fetal weight (FW), placental weight (PW), fetal/placental weight ratio (FPR) and complications between 295 cases with marginal insertion of umbilical cord, and 297 cases with normal umbilical cord insertion. The cases studied, with marginal insertion of umbilical cord, were admitted between 2013-2017 to the Second Western China Hospital of Sichuan University. The cases were divided into “upper”, “lower” and “other”, according to the site of umbilical cord insertion into the placenta. Results: The FW was lower, while the incident of low-birth weight infants was higher in the marginal umbilical cord insertion group than in the normal umbilical cord insertion group. In the subgroup of lower marginal insertions, the PW and FW were lower and the FPR was higher than in the subgroup of upper marginal insertion sites.Conclusion: The fetus with lower marginal umbilical cord insertion should be attended closely, with frequent monitoring of the developmental indices in order to screen abnormal growth of the fetus.
Key words:  Marginal umbilical cord insertion      Fetal weight      Placental weight      Fetal/placental weight ratio      Complications     
Published:  15 April 2020     
Fund: 2018JY0330/Applied Basic Research Program of Science and Technology Department of Sichuan Province
*Corresponding Author(s):  H. Luo     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Y. Tian, H. Luo, M. He. Effects of marginal umbilical cord insertion on the prognosis of fetus. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2020, 47(2): 234-237.

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Table 1  General information in MI group and NI groups
NI group MI group p score
Case 297 295 > 0.05
Maternal age 31.13 ± 4.2 31.13 ± 3.9 > 0.05
Gravidity 2.18 ± 1.3 1.99 ± 1.42 > 0.05
Parity 0.42 ± 0.53 0.27 ± 0.47 < 0.05
Gestational weeks 39+4 ± 1.08 39+2 ± 0.78 > 0.05
Conception way(nature) 280 (94.28%) 279 (94.58%) > 0.05
Table 2  FW、 PW 、FPR in MI group and NI groups
case FW PW FPR
NI group 297 3346.8 ± 387.49 599.19 ± 90.55 5.66 ± 0.76
MI group 295 3244.7 ± 365.48 590 ± 85.62 5.57 ± 0.78
p score < 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05
Table 3  Classification comparison of different insertion positions in MI group
case FW PW FPR
Upper 179 3292.95 ± 347.31* 604.87 ± 81.89* 5.52 ± 0.79*
Lower 99 3181.46 ± 406.14* 566.17 ± 81.00* 5.67 ± 0.72*
Others 17 3178.92 ± 312.58 582.14 ± 100.98 5.58 ± 0.88
Table 4  Complications in MI group and NI groups
Complications NI group MI group
cases ratio cases ratio
Premature rupture 78 26.26% 70 23.73%
Postpartum hemorrhage 11 3.7% 14 4.75%
Premature delivery 6 2.02% 6 2.03%
Fetal distress 1 0.34% 4 1.36%
Low birth weight 0 0 8 2.7%*
Fetal macrosomia 18 6.1% 8 2.7%
Still birth 0 0 1 0.34%
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