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Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology  2019, Vol. 46 Issue (1): 7-11    DOI: 10.12891/ceog4200.2019
Original Research | Next articles
Breast changes in pregnancy and lactation observed by ultrasonography
A.A. Reginaldo de Holanda1, *(), A.K. Gonçalves2, H.H. Carrara3, T.M. de Oliveira Maranhão2
1 Januãrio Cicco Maternity School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) – Natal/RN, Brazil
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) – Natal/RN, Brazil
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of São Paulo (USP) – Ribeirão Preto/SP, Brazil
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Abstract  
Purpose of Investigation: To assess the ultrasound aspects of breasts and laser Doppler flow measurements of the internal mammary arteries (IMA) in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant (control) women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observation study of 102 women, divided into three groups: control (CG), third trimester (G3), and lactation group (LG). The study variables were skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue, fibroglandular tissue, retromammary adipose tissue thickness, duct diameter, and pulsatility (PI) and resistance indices (RI) of the internal mammary arteries. Statistical analysis calculated the means and standard deviations, using two models Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) models to assess the effect of groups on the mean values found and adjusted ANOVA models for individual means. The Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons test was used to analyze intergroup. Results: There was no intergroup age difference (mean = 27 ± 4.76 years). A significant difference was observed between the G3/LG and the CG in terms of skin (p = 0.001), fibroglandular tissue thickness, duct diameter, and laser Doppler flow measurements of the IMA (all three with p < 0.001) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (p = 0.045). Conclusion: This study showed alterations in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue, fibroglandular tissue, and duct diameter measurements, with a difference between pregnant/lactating women and the non-pregnant controls.
Key words:  Pregnancy      Lactation      Breast ultrasound      Laser Doppler flowmetry     
Published:  10 February 2019     
*Corresponding Author(s):  A.A. REGINALDO DE HOLANDA     E-mail:  adohol@gmail.com

Cite this article: 

A.A. Reginaldo de Holanda, A.K. Gonçalves, H.H. Carrara, T.M. de Oliveira Maranhão. Breast changes in pregnancy and lactation observed by ultrasonography. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2019, 46(1): 7-11.

URL: 

https://ceog.imrpress.com/EN/10.12891/ceog4200.2019     OR     https://ceog.imrpress.com/EN/Y2019/V46/I1/7

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